" Tea " has become a very common word in people's lives today. But before the Tang Dynasty, the word "tea" was rare. There is a common saying that in ancient times, "tea" and "Tu" were one, and "Tu" was "Tea". However, some people think that the meaning of "tup" in ancient times was wider than "tea". No matter what kind of statement is correct, it is certain that after the publication of Lu Yu's "Book of Tea" in the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the word "tea" became widespread and its meaning was similar to that of today's tea.
Interestingly, after the word "tea" was widely used, "Tu" was sometimes used to indicate "tea" in the Tang Dynasty and later. For example, in the Qing Dynasty and even contemporary calligraphy works, it can still be seen "Refers to the phenomenon of" tea ". What is going on here?
In the late Qing dynasty, Wu Changshuo's post "Jiaochaxuan" was read by the author recently, and extended reading of Li Qingzhao's "The Preface to the Record of the Golden Stone".
Wu Changshuo's post "Kok Cha Xuan", the book is placed horizontally, the grass is lined, and it is the book of Guangxu Yichun's spring, which should be asked by his friend Xiao Qian. The next two paragraphs are written, one of which explains the allusion of the theme "horn tea", and the other one describes the glyph of the word "tea": "The tea word does not see Xu Shu, Tang Yu Yuchashan carved a stone, The tea characters are all made in the first five readings. I remember (钤 印). "
Who is Yu Yan? Yu Yan was the prime minister of Tang Xianzong. He was born in 818 and was unknown. With Lu Yu (733-804), who wrote the Book of Tea, Jiao Ran, a poet monk, was a contemporary, but he should be younger than Lu Yu.
Yu Yi is good at calligraphy, writes "Chashan Poems" and is engraved on the stone tablet, which is the "Chashan Poem Carved Stones" mentioned by Wu Changshuo in the section of "Jiao Cha Xuan". Wu also said: "The tea characters are all made in the first five readings", which means that the five "tea" characters appearing in Yu Yan's poems are all made of "tea". He also said: "The tea character does not see Xu Shu" and "Xu Shu" refers to "Shu Wen Jie Zi" edited by Xu Shen in the Eastern Han Dynasty and explaining the source of the font. This is the first dictionary in China, and the word "Tea" "Wen Jie Zi" is not available.
At the beginning of the formation of Chinese characters, there was no "tea" word, and the commonly used word "tea" refers to "tea". However, in addition to its meaning as a tea drink, the word "Tu" also has various meanings such as "bitter vegetable", "Tudu" and "Maolu Baihua". The application of tea has developed to a period of drinking, and the word "tea" obviously cannot summarize the role of tea in social life. In order to distinguish from the broad meaning of "Tu", the literati created the special word "tea".
According to the Qing Dynasty scholar Gu Yanwu's research: "According to the tea of tea, the tea is the same as the tea, but it is not divided in ancient times ... You can see the inscriptions on the Tang inscriptions in Taishan Yue Yue, see the fourteenth year of the calendar ( 779) engraved with the word 'Tuyao', and the word 'Tuban' in the fourteenth year of Zhengyuan (798), all made ... ... to the first year of Huichang (841), Liu Gongquan's mysterious tower inscription, Dazhongjiu In the year Pei Xiushu and Guifeng Zen Master's Tablet Tea, the word was reduced, and the word changed below the middle Tang dynasty. "(See" Ri Zhi Lu ")
According to the "Yi Shu" of the Qing Dynasty: "Today's" tea "word ancient work" Tu ", until Tang Lu Yu's" The Tea Classic ", one painting" Tea "was subtracted. That is to say, in the middle Tang Dynasty, Lu Yu was already in Write and use the word "tea". However, there is no more evidence that the word "tea" was created by Lu Yu alone. Or you can think of it this way, the word "tea" in calligraphy and inscriptions is "below the middle Tang Dynasty", while the word "tea" in book inscriptions is "before the middle Tang".
The writing of The Tea Script lasted for 14 years. It was completed in about 775 (there is also a saying that Lu Yu completed the Tea Script in 765, revised it again after 775, and finalized it in 780). Why was the Yu of the Tattoo History (as the Huzhou Tattoo History in 791, and according to historical data analysis, his Chashan poem was carved during the history of the Huzhou Tattoo History) Why did he still use the word "Tu"?
This shows that at the time, the words "tea" and "tea" might be used together. Another explanation, I think it is related to the development of publishing technology. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cai Lun made paper, and the Sui and Tang Dynasties had engraving printing. It is not necessary to rely on the Zhong Ding stele to record historical events like in the pre-Qin period. At this time, the inscriptions were more turned into golden stones to appreciate art. Therefore, Yu Yan's "Chashan Poem Carved Stones" as the word "Tu" is an artistic method, which reflects the artist's retro feelings.
After the Tang Dynasty Song and Yuan Ming calligraphy and painting, extended to the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, all artists use "tea" to refer to "tea". The "tea" in Wu Changshuo's Calligraphy "Xiao Cha Xuan" is also an extra painting. Even many contemporary calligraphers write "tea" when they write the word "tea". It can be seen that in expressing the meaning of "tea", the painter or painter may use "tea" for aesthetic reasons, while scholars and scholars use "tea" uniformly because of the accuracy of cultural communication.
By the way, when it comes to modern and contemporary artists using the word "Tu", everyone's best known is Wu Guanzhong's pen name: Wu Tucha. According to Wu Guanzhong's chronology, in 1938, Wu Guanzhong graduated from the National Academy of Fine Arts Preparatory School and was promoted to oil painting under this school. This year, he began to use "Wu Tu Cha" as his pen name, and later changed it to "Tu", which became a signature on the painting. However, Wu Guanzhong did not explain why he used the name "Tu" as an alias.
Some artists have analyzed that Wu Guanzhong, who had studied in France, worshipped Van Gogh in particular. Wu Guanzhong once said, "Van Gogh painted the tree with red, the revolving and unrestrained movement pointed directly at the night sky, the strong and heroic emotion, and the calm and thick red reached the miracle of fire." Maybe from this passage The origin of Wu Guanzhong's use of "Tu" as his pen name, of course, at this time, "Tu" seems to have little to do with "tea".