The Book of Songs · Weifeng · Qi'ao has a poem: "Zhanbi Qi'ao, green bamboo. There are bandit gentlemen, such as cut and cut, like cut and polished." It means that in the deep and deep place of Qishui, it is vague. It can be seen that the lush green bamboo can remind people of the "gentleman" 's graceful and clear style, selected the direction of study, and tempered his personality. This is the first historical record that associates the "gentleman" with bamboo. The use of bamboo as a metaphor also fully demonstrates the character and talent of the "gentleman". Spring bamboo, summer lotus, autumn chrysanthemum, winter plum, and tea is always at four o'clock, which is suitable for spring, summer, autumn and winter. Today, it is time to add tea to the list of "five gentlemen"!
Since ancient times, bamboo, orchid, chrysanthemum, and plum have been called "Four Gentlemen" by scholars and writers. They have given a deep national cultural spirit and become symbols of personality and virtue. As the head of the "Four Gentlemen", from the historical perspective, bamboo is the earliest plant that appeared in the form of "gentleman". From the perspective of plant biological characteristics, bamboo, orchid, chrysanthemum, and plum correspond to the four seasons throughout the year. The fastest growing in spring, the largest area of bamboo in China is Moso bamboo (also known as Meng Zongzhu). The maximum daily growth of Meng Zong bamboo shoots can reach 1.19 meters. As for Xia Lan and Qiu Chrysanthemum, it is naturally the most concerned plant in summer and autumn. In the winter, Aoxue is in full bloom. From a scientific perspective, the internationally accepted plant naming regulations are customarily sorted according to the principle of plant naming priority. Since gentlemen first refer to bamboo, and bamboo, orchid, chrysanthemum, and plum correspond to the four seasons of the year. Therefore, the order of the four gentlemen of "Bamboo, Orchid, Chrysanthemum, and Plum" is also natural and appropriate.
The origin of the name "Four Gentlemen" is, on the one hand, caused by the habit of the plant itself; on the other hand, it is also admired by the elegant scholars of all ages. Huang Fengchi, a writer in Huizhou, Anhui in the Ming Dynasty, wrote a series of "Four Spectrum of Plum and Bamboo and Chrysanthemums", which exemplified the gentleman's high moral character with the characteristics of four plantings, and won the consensus of the world. Thereafter, bamboo, orchid, chrysanthemum, and plum were collectively referred to as "four gentlemen". Modern literati Liang Shiqiu's evaluation of this imagery style is quite accurate: "Mei, cut snow and cut ice, is proud of himself; Lan, Konggu Youxiang, Gufang self-respect; bamboo, sieve wind and moon, chic life; chrysanthemum, Ling Shuang contented, not hot. Taken together, one thing in common is that Tsinghua is outside, indifferent to it, and does not behave like Mei Shi. "
Throughout history, the literati and writers of all dynasties have a special fondness for the "four gentlemen". Confucius commented on Lan: "Living with a good person, like entering the room of Zhilan, if you don't smell it for a long time, you will become a renunciator." Tao Yuanming Aiju of the Wei and Jin Dynasty wrote in his famous article "Drinking" Under the chrysanthemum fence, you can see Nanshan leisurely. "In the Song Dynasty, Lin Xiximei wrote plum blossoms in" Small Plum in the Mountain Garden "like" sparse shadows, oblique water, shallow water, subtle fragrance floating on the moon at dusk. " The poem in "Bamboo and Stone": "It is determined that the green mountains will not relax, and the roots will be in the broken rocks; thousands of mills and thousands of hits are still strong, and the wind will be north and south."
It can be seen that the "Four Gentlemen" is not only the sentimental feelings of the Chinese literati, but also the spiritual sustenance and belonging of the nation's emotions.
Tea, originally not included in the "Four Gentlemen", has the same indifferent and quiet nature, especially for its fragrant and long-lasting flavor, and the new fragrance "Mushi, love monks", picking tea, making tea, drinking tea, and tasting tea Even tea sets and tea wares have become art. Tea grows between green hills and valleys; the vitality of tea trees is tenacious, regardless of the extreme cold and heat, and the four seasons are evergreen; tea trees are willing to dedicate, spring buds are ready to be harvested, year after year, until the end of life. Tea sucks the essence of heaven and earth, holy and moisturizing; the tea soup is bitter and sweet, and the better and clearer; the tea art is natural, frugal and peaceful.
The Chinese have a long history of drinking tea, which originated from Shennong and thrived in the Tang Dynasty. It has been passed down to this day, and it has 4700 years of history. Lu Yu's "Book of Tea", known as "The Tea Man, Jiamu of the South", is the world's first monograph on tea science. In the book, the tea brewing process includes selection of tea, water extraction, equipment, condiments, tea making, and tea serving. , Tea and other methods are very particular about, so the world respected Lu Yu as "tea saint."
The pure and peaceful character of tea has attracted countless people who love tea. Bai Juyi's poem: "Taste a bowl of ravioli and read a row of books." "One or two night teas, three sounds of autumn chanting." Its tea does not leave the habit. According to legend, during Qianlong's visit to Taihu Lake, he tasted a kind of green tea called "Jingsharenxiang". Qianlong greatly praised and named it " Bi Luo Chun ", and became famous all over the world.
Mr. Lu Xun wrote "Drinking Tea", which said: "If you have good tea, you will drink good tea. It is a blessing. But to enjoy this blessing, you must first work hard, and secondly, you must practice it." Lu Xun Tea drinking has been raised to the cultural level, and tea is considered to be a spiritual drink, which is closely related to the development of Chinese traditional culture. The Tea Man Trilogy by contemporary writer Wang Xuzhen is a model of tea lovers in modern China. The work shows the forbearing spirit and tenacity of tea merchants on the path of their life with serious problems.
Tea culture originates from life and returns to life. It combines Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and integrates into all stages of Chinese culture with the development of the times. How many wise and elegant people in China appreciate the spiritual connotation of tea, enhance self in tea fragrance, and enrich spiritual homeland. Today, tea has naturally entered the "five gentlemen" list!
China is the hometown of tea and a large tea-producing country. Different regions have their own unique teas due to their unique geographical and climatic conditions. The opening of the Silk Road in the Western Han Dynasty allowed China's silk and tea to spread to other countries, which not only promoted the development of foreign trade, but also established a good relationship of peace and cooperation between China and the countries along the Silk Road. .
According to statistics, as of 2015, the total area of tea gardens in China reached 43.16 million mu, the output of dry wool tea reached 2.278 million tons, and the comprehensive output value reached 307.8 billion yuan. In 2016, the development of China's tea industry still maintained a good growth momentum. As Chinese children, we should promote tea culture and promote the tea industry. We have reason to believe that, with the promotion of culture and the benign model of industry and culture, China's tea culture industry will further flourish and develop, thus opening up the entire industry chain and helping to form a trillion-dollar tea industry. China's economic and cultural development makes a special contribution.
As an important platform for the promotion and dissemination of tea culture, agricultural and forestry universities have always worked hard for the development of the tea culture industry. In particular, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University has also set up a tea culture college to adhere to the promotion of tea culture as an important mission. The cultivation of tea culture talents.
The Tea Culture College of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University was established in 2006. It is China ’s first base for training tea culture professionals at the undergraduate level. Later, it also established a base for the international promotion of Chinese tea culture, providing a world-class internationalization for the essence of tea culture. platform. The tea culture documentary "Chinese Tea: The Panacea of the East" curated by Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University was highly praised by all circles in the United States after it was broadcast in the United States, and was collected by former US President Carter. Carter also wrote a letter of gratitude to the producer.
In 2015, the Institute of Bamboo Tea Culture of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University was established, and the "Zhangjun Ju" tea was officially proposed. The tea was included in the ranks of the five gentlemen in China and went hand in hand with Zhulan Jumei. Cultural self-confidence is a more basic, broader, and deeper self-confidence. It is a more basic, deeper, and lasting force. The Chinese people should work together to promote the Chinese tea culture, make the tea industry bigger and stronger, benefit the people, and share it with people all over the world!